North West

The boundaries of Darkinyung country, as defined by the Darkinyung Local Aboriginal Land Council, stretch from Catherine Hill Bay to the North, Hawkesbury River to the South, Pacific Ocean to the East and Watagan Mountains to the West.

Among its historic areas are the Sackville Reach Aboriginal Reserves, established in the middle 1880s and dissolved in the 1940s, (also included in the Western section) and the farm owned by Biddy Lewis, daughter of Matora, and John Lewis (Ferdinand) on the upper reaches of Marra Marra Creek.

 

 

 

 

 

Darkinyung have uterine descents, and is divided

A Man    Marries    The Children

Bya       Butha       Ippa and Ippatha

Kubbi     Ippatha    Kumbo and Batha

Ippai      Kubbitha   Murri and Matha

Kumbo    Matha      Kubbi and Kubbitha

These are some of the totems attached to Bya and Kubbi- Scrub opossum, Native Bee, Emu, Bandicoot, Eagle Hawk, Stingaree, Wallroo.The pair of sections Ippai and Kumbo have the following totems amongst others – Grey Kangaroo, Diamond Python, Wombat, Black Snake & Wallaby. Among the intersectional or family marriages in this tribe, Kuubi Bandicote could marry Kubbitha Stingaree. (Mathews 1897:170-1)

Evidence of population density at contact

Archaelogical evidence of Aboriginal occupation suggests a comparatively large number of Aboriginal people lived on the coast around Newcastle and the Lake Macquarie region dating back to around 11,000 years ago. Aboriginal population in some inland areas may have also been relatively large in the years preceding the 1828 “census”. One settler at Patrick’s Plains in 1824 counted 300 able-bodied men and Henry Dangar was attacked and “near cut off” by an Aboriginal party numbering around 150. 200 Aboriginal people were seen at Merton in 1826 and magistrates at Glendon and Luskintyre wrote that the “Upper Districts of Hunter’s River” are occupied by Three Tribes whose numbers we suppose to exceed 500. (Lucas, 45-46).

The people between the Hawkesbury and Hunter Rivers – comprising rugged ranges and valleys, major rivers, grassland plains, lakes and estuaries – are socially, culturally and archaeologically rich. The mountainous regions west of Wollombi contain ceremonial sites where neighbouring Aboriginal groups from far and wide met for large tribal gatherings. Yengo country has important spiritual and teaching places: paintings, drawings and engravings plus carved trees, stone arrangements, and family shelters along ancient pathways. Yengo is Biame’s stepping up place, where Biame stepped back into the sky after creation and law making tasks were completed. The Hawkesbury and Brisbane Water districts share a great density and variety of sites. The higher regions are abundant with axe-grinding grooves, rock shelters containing charcoal and ochre drawings, and rock engravings. The Hunter Valley has many significant sites: ancient Bora grounds with sacred circles and carved trees near the junctions of major rivers in the Upper Hunter, rock art in the Bulga area including Milbrodale rock shelter in which a large man-like figure is painted on the rear wall with other motifs and stencils. There are also stone artefact scatters, open campsites and stone quarries. Aboriginal people identified as clan leaders or by Europeans as “Kings”: A large number of clan leaders or “Kings” rose to prominence across Darkinung country and its near neighbours through time. The oldest known “King Plate” or gorget dated 1815 belonged to King Bungaree, a well known identity from Broken Bay. From the 1820s, gorgets are commonly used in the pastoral industry to gain favour with local Aboriginal people. This includes the first manager of the Australian Agricultural Company in the Port Stephens area from 1826. Gorgets are also used to reward Aboriginal people for special services and for heroic acts. Rev Threlkeld recommends Biraban for public honour for teaching him his Native Tongue. One of the most famous cases is that of Jackey Jackey, the hero of Edmund Kennedy’s doomed expedition of 1848. He was given the most elaborate of all known gorgets. Native constables and native guides at Newcastle and Port Macquarie receive plates as service awards for helping to prevent the escape of prisoners. Morningal and Yarrowbee are decorated by the commandant of Port Macquarie penal settlement and given the rank of “chief” (NMA). Some of the local “Chiefs” and “Kings” are: The Branch natives: Yaragowhy, Yaramandy, Old Yellomundy and young Kootee, Mioram (“Myles” or “Miles”) receive a gorget. Deniheny or Duimberry (Billy Green) of the Belmont Tribe (and at different times Richmond Tribe and Putty Tribe) Hawkesbury-Hunter Ranges: “King Jetto, Wallumbi” (Wollombi) (kangaroo and emu design) and Cockey, Chief of Wooleroo (Hunter Valley) receive gorgets.“King” Potembo (“Boni” or “Boney”) of Wollombi Brisbane Waters/Lake Macquarie: Chughi, “Chief of the Broken Bay, Narara”; Mullet, King of Wyong; Bill, Wyoming of Brisbane Water and Barabahn or MacGil, Chief of the Tribe at Bartabah, on Lake Macquarie” receive gorgets. “King Ben” at Lake Macquarie; “King Shingleman” at Lake Macquarie; “King Molly” (Ned) of Norah Head; Queen Margaret (born Wyong) of Norah Head and wife of King Molly (Ned) Newcastle and Hunter River: “King Cobra” or Kurba (alias Constable); “King Bully” of the Newcastle tribes, “Master William, King of Sugarloaf” receive a gorget. King Bonney, chief of tribe for Hunter River; King Tom of Dunmore, Maitland. Upper Hunter Valley [Singleton area]: “King Jacky” and “Queen Biddy” of Nectar Bank near Gundy; King Jimmy of Patrick Plains; “Chief Jerry” at Merton; “Coolan’s” father: King of the “Panin-Pililal Tribe” at Dartbrook, 1854; Jackey Jackey (relief: swans and central dingo head) received a gorget presented by the Governor of NSW.

Aboriginal people identified as clan leaders or by Europeans as “Kings”:

A large number of clan leaders or “Kings” rose to prominence across Darkinung country and its near neighbours through time. The oldest known “King Plate” or gorget dated 1815 belonged to King Bungaree, a well known identity from Broken Bay. From the 1820s, gorgets are commonly used in the pastoral industry to gain favour with local Aboriginal people. This includes the first manager of the Australian Agricultural Company in the Port Stephens area from 1826. Gorgets are also used to reward Aboriginal people for special services and for heroic acts. Rev Threlkeld recommends Biraban for public honour for teaching him his Native Tongue. One of the most famous cases is that of Jackey Jackey, the hero of Edmund Kennedy’s doomed expedition of 1848.  He was given the most elaborate of all known gorgets. Native constables and native guides at Newcastle and Port Macquarie receive plates as service awards for helping to prevent the escape of prisoners. Morningal and Yarrowbee are decorated by the commandant of Port Macquarie penal settlement and given the rank of “chief”  (NMA).  Some of the local “Chiefs” and “Kings” are:

The Branch natives: Yaragowhy, Yaramandy, Old Yellomundy and young Kootee, Mioram (“Myles” or “Miles”) receive a gorget. Deniheny or Duimberry (Billy Green) of the Belmont Tribe (and at different times Richmond Tribe and Putty Tribe)

Hawkesbury-Hunter Ranges: “King Jetto, Wallumbi” (Wollombi) (kangaroo and emu design) and Cockey, Chief of Wooleroo (Hunter Valley) receive gorgets.“King” Potembo (“Boni” or “Boney”) of Wollombi

Brisbane Waters/Lake Macquarie: Chughi, “Chief of the Broken Bay, Narara”; Mullet, King of Wyong; Bill, Wyoming of Brisbane Water and Barabahn or MacGil, Chief of the Tribe at Bartabah, on Lake Macquarie” receive gorgets. “King Ben” at Lake Macquarie; “King Shingleman” at Lake Macquarie; “King Molly” (Ned) of Norah Head; Queen Margaret (born Wyong) of Norah Head and wife of King Molly (Ned)

Newcastle and Hunter River: “King Cobra” or Kurba (alias Constable); “King Bully” of the Newcastle tribes, “Master William, King of Sugarloaf” receive a gorget. King Bonney, chief of tribe for Hunter River; King Tom of Dunmore, Maitland.

Upper Hunter Valley  [Singleton area]: “King Jacky” and “Queen Biddy” of Nectar Bank near Gundy; King Jimmy of Patrick Plains; “Chief Jerry” at Merton; “Coolan’s” father: King of the “Panin-Pililal Tribe” at Dartbrook, 1854; Jackey Jackey (relief: swans and central dingo head) received a gorget presented by the Governor of NSW.

 

The Branch natives: Yaragowhy, Yaramandy, Old Yellomundy and young Kootee, Mioram (“Myles” or “Miles”) receive a gorget. Deniheny or Duimberry (Billy Green) of the Belmont Tribe (and at different times Richmond Tribe and Putty Tribe)

 Hawkesbury-Hunter Ranges: “King Jetto, Wallumbi” (Wollombi) (kangaroo and emu design) and Cockey, Chief of Wooleroo (Hunter Valley) receive gorgets.“King” Potembo (“Boni” or “Boney”) of Wollombi

 Brisbane Waters/Lake Macquarie: Chughi, “Chief of the Broken Bay, Narara”; Mullet, King of Wyong; Bill, Wyoming of Brisbane Water and Barabahn or MacGil, Chief of the Tribe at Bartabah, on Lake Macquarie” receive gorgets. “King Ben” at Lake Macquarie; “King Shingleman” at Lake Macquarie; “King Molly” (Ned) of Norah Head; Queen Margaret (born Wyong) of Norah Head and wife of King Molly (Ned)

 Newcastle and Hunter River: “King Cobra” or Kurba (alias Constable); “King Bully” of the Newcastle tribes, “Master William, King of Sugarloaf” receive a gorget. King Bonney, chief of tribe for Hunter River; King Tom of Dunmore, Maitland.

 Upper Hunter Valley  [Singleton area]: “King Jacky” and “Queen Biddy” of Nectar Bank near Gundy; King Jimmy of Patrick Plains; “Chief Jerry” at Merton; “Coolan’s” father: King of the “Panin-Pililal Tribe” at Dartbrook, 1854; Jackey Jackey (relief: swans and central dingo head) received a gorget presented by the Governor of NSW.

The Branch natives: Yaragowhy, Yaramandy, Old Yellomundy and young Kootee, Mioram (“Myles” or “Miles”) receive a gorget. Deniheny or Duimberry (Billy Green) of the Belmont Tribe (and at different times Richmond Tribe and Putty Tribe)

Hawkesbury-Hunter Ranges: “King Jetto, Wallumbi” (Wollombi) (kangaroo and emu design) and Cockey, Chief of Wooleroo (Hunter Valley) receive gorgets.“King” Potembo (“Boni” or “Boney”) of Wollombi

Brisbane Waters/Lake Macquarie: Chughi, “Chief of the Broken Bay, Narara”; Mullet, King of Wyong; Bill, Wyoming of Brisbane Water and Barabahn or MacGil, Chief of the Tribe at Bartabah, on Lake Macquarie” receive gorgets. “King Ben” at Lake Macquarie; “King Shingleman” at Lake Macquarie; “King Molly” (Ned) of Norah Head; Queen Margaret (born Wyong) of Norah Head and wife of King Molly (Ned)

Newcastle and Hunter River: “King Cobra” or Kurba (alias Constable); “King Bully” of the Newcastle tribes, “Master William, King of Sugarloaf” receive a gorget. King Bonney, chief of tribe for Hunter River; King Tom of Dunmore, Maitland.

Upper Hunter Valley  [Singleton area]: “King Jacky” and “Queen Biddy” of Nectar Bank near Gundy; King Jimmy of Patrick Plains; “Chief Jerry” at Merton; “Coolan’s” father: King of the “Panin-Pililal Tribe” at Dartbrook, 1854; Jackey Jackey (relief: swans and central dingo head) received a gorget presented by the Governor of NSW.

  References: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission. 1997. Aboriginal Australia Aboriginal People of NSW. Commonwealth of Australia: Canberra, Australian Capital Territory Archaeological and Heritage Solutions Pty Ltd. 2008. Qld Hunter gas Pipeline, NSW – Environmental Assessment: Aboriginal Heritage Assessment. Retrieved 29 September 2009 from http://www.planning.nsw.gov.au/asp/pdf/06_0286_ghgp_22c_appendix_e3.pdf Blyton, Greg; Heitmeyer, Deirdre and Maynar, John. 2004. Wannin Thanbarran: A History of Aboriginal and European Contact in Muswellbrook and the Upper Hunter Valley. Muswellbrook Shire Council Aboriginal Reconciliation Committee: Newcastle, New South Wales Mulvaney, Richard. 1983. Bachlor of Letters Thesis From Curio to Curation: The Morrison collection of Aboriginal wooden Artefacts. Australian National University: Canberra, Australian Capital Territory Anna Gray Last Updated: 4 May 2010 Tags Morrison, Collections, Cultural, NSW, Singleton, Indigenous, Aboriginal, Morrison Collection, Anna Gray, - See more at: http://australianmuseum.net.au/St-Clair-Mission#sthash.toRmC1wB.dpuf