Topics: Government policy: North Coastal

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stolen generations

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Susan Moylan-Coombs was removed from her family

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meeting the requirements of The Native Title Act are often impossible when so many people were killed and so much culture destroyed

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extinguishing their right to claim the land as theirs under The Native Title Act

1790 - view

A stockade is built at Woodford Bay, Lane Cove, by soldiers to protect convict grass-cutters and timber-getters from Aboriginal attack. Pemulwuy, a feared Koori warrior and leader, is said to have led attacks on it.

1798 - view

This sort of war lasted about 12 months at which time an order from England arrived respecting their behalf, and then the scene was reversed for instead of shooting or killing them (Aborigines) the orders were given for no one to molest them unless they were committing some depredation. The cause of the war began about some sheep which stock-keepers said the natives had speared… they revenged themselves by killing one of the stock keepers. (Morris 1978)

1799 - view

Two Aboriginal boys are killed near Windsor by five Hawkesbury settlers. A court martial finds them guilty but refers sentencing to the Secretary of State for the Colonies and the men are released on bail. The court is told that the boys were tortured then murdered as revenge for the death of Simon Freebody. Many months later, the men are set free

1803 - view

Governor King is able to report “all quiet” on the Hawkesbury in May, though isolated raids still continue all along the river.

1805 - view

Aboriginal people try to defend their land and kill colonists. On 20 July, Judge Advocate Richard Atkins rules that Aboriginal people “are at present incapable of being brought before a criminal court, and that the only mode at present when they deserve it, is to pursue them and inflict such punishment as they merit”. (Foley 2001)

1805 - view

Governor Macquarie gives a government General Order that The natives in different parts of the out-settlements have in an unprovoked … manner lately committed the most brutal murder on some defenseless settlers … the government has judged it necessary for the preservation of the lives and properties … to distribute detachments from the NSW Corps. (ie soldiers) (Karskens 2009, ch 13)

1814 - view

Macquarie notes that “some idle and ill disposed Europeans had taken liberties with (Aboriginal) women, and had also treacherously attacked and killed a woman and her two children whilst sleeping, and this unprovoked cruelty produced retaliation whereby persons perfectly innocent of the crime lost their lives”. ( Historical Records of Australia vol 8, pp. 250-251)

1815 - view

Governor Macquarie sets up the Native Institution at Parramatta, It is a dormitory school where Aboriginal children can be educated in English ways without the influence of their families and clans. At first some parents leave their children at the school voluntarily, later they realise that they will not be allowed to leave.

1816 - view

Koori people attack farms around Sydney. Macquarie sends Captain Wallis with three detachments of soldiers to arrest offenders. They attack a camp at night and 14 Aboriginal people are killed. Macquarie sets out regulations controlling Aboriginal people. No one is to appear within a mile of any settlement and no more than six are to ‘lurk’ or ‘loiter’ near farms. Passports or certificates are issued to Aboriginals “who conduct themselves in a suitable manner”.

1816 - view

Macquarie issues two further proclamations outlawing the ten “most violent and atrocious natives”. He orders that those who have not already been killed should be invited to a “General Friendly Meeting” and Blanket Distribution at Parramatta on 28 December.

1824 - view

The deputation of an embassy to negotiate with the Aboriginal tribes a treaty of peace would probably be impracticable … the difficulty of procuring a peaceful interview with the numerous chiefs could not be surmounted.

1832 - view

Blanket distribution by the NSW Colonial Government to the clans of Sydney. 28 Aboriginal people receive blankets and stores.

1834 - view

Second blanket distribution. Only 16 people receive blankets.

1836 - view

At the Blanket Distribution, 35 people arrive to receive blankets.

1842 - view

Last blanket distribution in Brisbane Waters and Gosford, 27 men received blankets.

1883 - view

Aboriginal Protection Board established by New South Wales Government (later to become known as the Aborigines Welfare Board). The Board begins to remove Aboriginal children from families, previously done only by missionaries. The Board’s powers are legislated through an Act of Parliament in 1909. The Board’s policy is that all Aboriginal people should live on reserves. In 1883 there are 25 Aboriginal reserves in NSW totaling 1,414 hectares. By 1900 there are 133 reserves. Aboriginal people are encouraged to farm these reserves and farm equipment is supplied. Most of these reserves had insufficient food but the Aboriginal people are expected to be self sufficient. Supplies of rations were only given to the aged, sick and children.